Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Pharmacology. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Pharmacology. Mostrar todas las entradas


Do antibiotics during pregnancy affect the health of premature infants?


The use of antibiotics during pregnancy cannot always be avoided. Researchers investigating the impact of antibiotic use on the health of premature infants recently published their findings in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Babies born prematurely are extremely vulnerable even in the protective environment provided by neonatal intensive care units.

Approximately 33% of infants born before 32-weeks gestation develop late-onset sepsis (LOS), which occurs when the bloodstream becomes infected with bacteria.

Fewer infants (7%) develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious condition with a relatively high mortality rate in which sections of the bowel die.

Past studies suggested that the risk of developing these diseases, or even dying, is increased in premature infants who are given antibiotics for an extended period from birth.

Read Also: When do kids need to go to the orthodontist?

Antibiotics during pregnancy can affect an infant’s microbial population
An emerging concern is that infants are developing infections that are resistant to the antibiotics taken by their mothers during pregnancy. This prompted a team in the USA to ask whether fetal exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy could increase the incidence of post-birth bacterial infections, such as LOS and NEC, in premature babies.

The team gathered data from 580 infants born before 32-weeks gestation. These infants had been placed into one of three level-III neonatal intensive care units in Ohio or Alabama in the United States. They were monitored for 120 days or until they were discharged, transferred, or died.


° By Natasha Tetlow


PHARMACOLOGY : Guideline on use of antibiotic therapy for pediatric dental patients


The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recognizes the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.

This guideline is intended to provide guidance in the proper and judicious use of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of oral conditions.

Antibiotics are beneficial in patient care when prescribed and administered correctly for bacterial infections.

However, the widespread use of antibiotics has permitted common bacteria to develop resistance to drugs that once controlled them.

Read Also: PHARMACOLOGY : Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric odontology

Drug resistance is prevalent throughout the world. Some microorganisms may develop resistance to a single antimicrobial agent, while others develop multidrug-resistant strains.

To diminish the rate at which resistance is increasing, health care providers must be prudent in the use of antibiotics.




PHARMACOLOGY : Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric odontology


Most orofacial infections are of odontogenic origin, and are of a self-limiting nature, characterized by spontaneous drainage.

The causal bacteria are generally saprophytes. On the other hand, invasive dental interventions give rise to transient bacteremia.

When an oral lesion is contaminated by extrinsic bacteria, the required antibiotic treatment should be provided as soon as possible.

In the case of pulpitis, such treatment is usually not indicated if the infection only reaches the pulp tissue or the immediately adjacent tissues.

Read Also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days

In the event of dental avulsion, local antibiotic application is advised, in addition to the provision of systemic antibiotics.

The dental professional must know the severity of the infection and the general condition of the child in order to decide referral to a medical center.

Paloma Planells del Pozo / Mª José Barra Soto / Eva Santa Eulalia Troisfontaines


Which Medications Are Safe in Pregnancy?

During pregnancy, your focus may have shifted to your growing baby.

But you, too, may need some extra TLC, especially if you get sick.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, some 9 in 10 women take medication at some point during their pregnancies.

Many over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and prescription medications are classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to risk.

Those falling in categories A, B, or C are generally considered “safe” for use during pregnancy.

Read Also: ORAL HEALTH : Tongue tie

Youtube / The Dentist!


Assessment and treatment of pain in pediatric patients

Pediatric patients experience pain which is more difficult to assess and treat relatively to adults.

Evidence demonstrates that controlling pain in the pediatrics age period is beneficial, improving physiologic, behavioral, and hormonal outcomes.

Multiple validated scoring systems exist to assess pain in pediatrics; however, there is no standardized or universal approach for pain management.

Healthcare facilities should establish pediatrics pain control program. This review summaries a collection of pain assessment tools and management practices in different facilities.

This systematic approach should decrease pediatric pain and poor outcomes as well as improve provider and parent satisfaction.

Read also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days


According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Pain is “an un-pleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual and potential tissue damage”.

Pain has also been defined as “existing whenever they say it does rather than whatever the experiencing person says”.

Halefom Kahsay
Review Article - Current Pediatric Research (2017) Volume 21, Issue 1