Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Pediatric Dentistry. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Pediatric Dentistry. Mostrar todas las entradas

4/14/2020

CLINICAL CASE : Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11 year old child

Clinical Case

A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy.

This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child.

A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient’s medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures.


A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging.

The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

Read Also: EMERGENCY : Multidisciplinary approach in the immediate replantation of a maxillary central incisor

Introduction : Dental abscesses and facial cellulitis put dentists on alert for potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis or airway obstruction, but the risk of a brain abscess is a complication of odontogenic infection that dentists rarely consider.

This report describes the case of an 11-year-old boy whose brain abscess and associated neurological signs were most likely attributable to an abscessed primary molar.

The description of the neurological signs and symptoms, and the history and management of this case will inform dentists about the real possibility of a brain abscess of dental origin.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°jcda.ca
°Canadian Dental Association
°Dr. Hibberd / Dr. Nguyen

4/06/2020

ORTHODONTIC : Guiding Unerupted Teeth into Occlusion: Case Report

ORTHODONTIC

Tooth eruption is considered to be delayed if emergence of a tooth into the oral cavity occurs at a time deviating significantly from norms established for the person’s sex and ethnic background.

Generally, a permanent tooth should erupt no later than 6 months after natural exfoliation of its predecessor, but a delay of up to 12 months may be of little or no importance in an otherwise healthy child.

Therefore, most practitioners consider eruption delayed only if the interval extends to more than 1 year.



Eruption of a tooth is considered to be delayed (i.e., the tooth is impacted) when all of the following conditions exist:

a. The normal time for eruption has been exceeded.
b. The tooth is not present in the dental arch and shows no potential for eruption.
c. The root of the unerupted tooth is completely formed.
d. The homologous tooth has been erupted for at least 6 months.

Read Also: DENTAL TRAUMA : A story of dental injury and orthodontics

Case Report . Diagnosis
A preadolescent girl (9 years, 2 months of age) and her mother presented to a private practice. The patient was “missing a front permanent tooth,” a situation that was esthetically displeasing to both the child and the mother.

A supernumerary tooth had been extracted when the patient was 7 years of age, and she had been advised to await eruption of the permanent successor tooth.

Clinical examination at the time of the current presentation revealed good oral health and mixed dentition.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


jcda.ca
Seema B. Shah, BDS, MFDS RCS (Eng); Gajanan Kulkarni, BDS, LLB, MSc, D Ped Dent, PhD, FRCD(C)



4/05/2020

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Congenital epulis with auto-resolution: case report

Congenital epulis

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign lesion that affects the oral cavity of newborns, and presents histological features which are similar to those of granular cell tumor.

The origin of this lesion has not been fully elucidated, and many hypotheses are considered due to the large variety of cell types observed in histological sections.

Epulis development occurs further in the prenatal period, and is more common in newborn females, frequently in the maxilla.



This lesion usually is presentend as a nodule covered by normal oral mucosa, which in some cases, interferes with baby's breathing and feeding.

This report describes the case of a two-month-old male baby who presented a pedunculated intraoral lesion in the mandibular alveolar ridge.

Read Also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days

Histological sections revealed presence of mucosal fragments with atrophic squamous stratified epithelium, and fibrous connective tissue composed of cells with granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm.

A few days after initial exam, the lesion detached from alveolar ridge, and healed spontaneously.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° Adriane Sousa de SIQUEIRA, Márcia Regina Dias de CARVALHO, Ana Celina Dourado MONTEIRO, Maria das Graças Rodrigues PINHEIRO, Lucas Rodrigues PINHEIRO, João de Jesus Viana PINHEIRO



Early Premolar Extraction: An Uncommon but Very Effective Treatment Option

Orthodontic

The terminology “serial extraction” in Orthodontics was first described in the late 1920’s when Kjellgren decided to plan the extraction of certain deciduous and permanent teeth at early stages of the dentition development.

Since the extractions are under taken at the transitional dentition. This type of treatment is defined as “Early Treatment” in Orthodontics.

The main indication for this treatment approach is for patients with severe crowding caused by tooth size arch discrepancies. In other words, when maxillary and/or mandibular arches cannot accommodate teeth, extraction becomes an interesting option.



Although this treatment option has been used for almost a century in the contemporary orthodontics it’s indication is very specific.

Since it’s an irreversible approach (permanent teeth are early extracted) the clinician should carefully diagnosis the case before selecting this option.

Read Also: ORTHODONTICS : Serial extraction of primary teeth

In addition, as time passed by, orthodontics specialty has dramatically evolved and developed several options to gain space instead of extracting teeth.

On the other hand, the idea to early extract permanent teeth continues to be an interesting treatment option in clinical orthodontics mainly in severely crowded patients.

The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a ten-year-old male patient who presented severe crowding and treatment option was to extract four first premolars at early stages of the dentition development.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° Adeniyi M J, A O Soladoye. Plasma Lipid Profile and Uric Acid in High Fat Fed Female Rats Treated with Oral Contraceptive. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 1(3)-2017. BJSTR. MS.ID.000256. DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000256



4/04/2020

Inhalation conscious sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen in pediatric dentistry

Sedation

Conscious sedation is a technique in which one or more pharmacological agents are employed to produce a mild depression in the central nervous system, without loss of consciousness so that verbal contact can always be maintained with the patient; this allows for certain dental procedures to be performed.

The technique is associated with a great margin of safety.

In Odontopediatrics, the sedative agents generally employed are nitrous oxide (N2O) and benzodiazepines, amongst other agents with sedative properties.



The use of nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O) is becoming more frequent for general and pediatric procedures in dental medicine and has become common practice in many countries.

Read Also: ORAL SURGERY : Guideline on Pediatric Oral Surgery

It is also frequently used in general pediatric medicine for procedures ranging from minor surgery to more invasive diagnostic procedures.

Nitrous oxide, or protoxide of nitrogen (N2O), is a colorless gas with a sweetish taste. It has an anxiolytic and sedative effect, and also promotes muscular relaxation and analgesia.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° Ana Catarina Barroso Macedo Barbosa / Joana Moura˜oII, Virgınia Milagre / David Casimiro de Andrade / Cristina Areias



PREVENTION : Why are Fluoride Treatments Important for Kids?

Prevention

Fluoride is a mineral compound containing fluorine, a naturally occurring element.

It helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid and plaque and strengthens the enamel by replacing nutrients.

While small amounts of fluoride are found in many toothpastes, rinses and city water sources, the fluoride treatments used in our dental office are much more concentrated.



Studies have shown that children who receive regular fluoride treatments, once every 6 months, may have up to 40% fewer cavities than those who do not.

Fluoride treatment is easy and affordable. Dr. Kailes recommends topical fluoride varnish treatments for all children every 6 months.

Read Also: Fluoride varnish in primary dentition positively affects caries prevention

Fluoride varnish is much easier and more enjoyable than traditional fluoride rinses, foams and trays; and does not require any waiting to eat or drink afterwards.

After teeth are cleaned, the assistant will quickly paint the varnish on the teeth. When it comes in contact with the tooth, it spreads across the entire tooth surface and is absorbed over the next 24 hours.


Youtube / GrowingHealthySmiles



4/03/2020

Deformity of the tongue in an infant: Riga-Fede disease

Dental Emergency

Riga-Fede is the rare condition of benign ulceration caused by repeti-tive trauma to the lingual tissues by the teeth in children younger than two years of age.

The differential diagnosis includes infective and neoplastic conditions.

Histological diagnosis is required when the symptoms fail to resolve with standard management.

The case involv-ing an 11-month-old girl who presented with ulceration of the tongue, resulting in a reasonable defect of the tongue tip, is reported in the present article.

Read Also: Idiopathic Gingival Hyperplasia: A Case Report with a 17-Year Followup

Following excisional biopsy, the lesion healed without subsequent recurrence.

Riga-Fede disease should be consid-ered in infants presenting with oral ulceration. Extraction of the offending teeth should be considered when associated with failure to thrive or failed conservative management.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°researchgate.net
°Karen A Eley / Pauline A Watt-Smith / Stephen R Watt-Smith



ORTHODONTIC : Tongue thrusting habit: A review

Orthodontic

Deleterious oral habits are the common problem of pediatricians, which aff ects the quality of life.

Oral habits are repetitive behavior in the oral cavity that result in loss of tooth structure and they include digit sucking, pacifi er sucking, lip sucking and biting, nailbiting, bruxism, self-injurious habits, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting.

Para functional habits are recognized as a major etiological factor for the development of dental malocclusion. Thumb sucking and tongue thrusting is the common ones.

Abnormal tongue function and posture have been long debated as a cause of malocclusion. Lefoulon, in 1839 quoted “prevention is better than cure.”

Understanding the etiology, eff ects and it management at early stages may be helpful to prevent future severe skeletal malocclusion. This review deals with these aspects of tongue thrusting habit.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Serial Extractions in orthodontic – A Review

Definition

Tulley 1969 - states tongue thrust as the forward movement of the tongue tip between the teeth to meet the lower lip during deglutition and in sounds of speech, so that the tongue becomes interdental.

Tongue thrust is an oral habit pattern related to the persistence of an infantile swallow pattern during childhood and adolescence and thereby produces an open bite and protrusion of the anterior tooth segment.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°ijcdmr.com
°International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews
°Suchita Madhukar Tarvade, Sheetal Ramkrishna



ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

oral pathology

Human dentitions are subject to considerable variation in size, form, number of teeth and to the structure of the dental tissues.

Disorders of the development of teeth may be inheritedor acquired.

The primary dentition begins to form at approximately six weeks in utero and the permanent dentition continues through late adolescence.

The dentition is thereforesusceptible to environmental influencesfor many years.

Diagnosing abnormal dental development requires thorough evaluation of the patient, including a medical, dental and family history, clinical examination, and radiographic evaluation and, in some cases, special laboratory tests are also required.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review

Genetic consultation is important not merely to put a name to the condition, but also to give appropriate advice on the prognosis and the risk of recurrence in future generations.

It is impossible, in the context of this article, to describe in detail all dental anomalies that occur in children.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


Jinous F Tahmassebi / Peter F Day / Kyriacos Jack Toumba



Do antibiotics during pregnancy affect the health of premature infants?

Pregnant

The use of antibiotics during pregnancy cannot always be avoided. Researchers investigating the impact of antibiotic use on the health of premature infants recently published their findings in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Babies born prematurely are extremely vulnerable even in the protective environment provided by neonatal intensive care units.

Approximately 33% of infants born before 32-weeks gestation develop late-onset sepsis (LOS), which occurs when the bloodstream becomes infected with bacteria.

Fewer infants (7%) develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious condition with a relatively high mortality rate in which sections of the bowel die.

Past studies suggested that the risk of developing these diseases, or even dying, is increased in premature infants who are given antibiotics for an extended period from birth.

Read Also: When do kids need to go to the orthodontist?

Antibiotics during pregnancy can affect an infant’s microbial population
An emerging concern is that infants are developing infections that are resistant to the antibiotics taken by their mothers during pregnancy. This prompted a team in the USA to ask whether fetal exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy could increase the incidence of post-birth bacterial infections, such as LOS and NEC, in premature babies.

The team gathered data from 580 infants born before 32-weeks gestation. These infants had been placed into one of three level-III neonatal intensive care units in Ohio or Alabama in the United States. They were monitored for 120 days or until they were discharged, transferred, or died.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° medicalnewsbulletin.com
° By Natasha Tetlow



4/02/2020

An Interdisciplinary Approach for Rehabilitating a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has been defined as a group of hereditary enamel defects. It can be characterized by enamel hypoplasia, hypomaturation, or hypocalcification of the teeth.

AI may be associated with some other dental and skeletal developmental defects. Restoration for patients with this condition should be oriented toward the functional and esthetic rehabilitation.

This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young patient diagnosed with the hypoplastic type of AI in posterior teeth and hypomatured type of AI in anterior teeth.

Introduction : Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a diverse group of hereditary disorders that primarily affect the quantity, structure, and composition of enamel. The inheritance pattern of AI may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked.

Read Also: Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

According to the Witkop classification system, there are four main forms of AI: type I hypoplastic enamel, type II hypomatured enamel, type III hypocalcified enamel, and type IV hypomatured-hypoplastic enamel with taurodontism.

Clinical presentation of AI varies considerably among the different AI types. In the hypomature type, the affected teeth exhibit mottled, opaque white-brown or yellow discolored enamel, which is softer than normal.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° hindawi.com
° Niloufar Khodaeian / Mahmoud Sabouhi / Ebrahim Ataei



Clinical Case: Upper Lip Tie Release Treatment

Upper lip

A tongue-tie is an unusually short, thick or tight band of tissue (lingual frenulum) that tethers the bottom of the tongue’s tip to the floor of the mouth, limiting mobility.

Likewise, a lip-tie (labial frenulum) is a short, thick or tight band of tissue that tethers the upper lip to the upper gums, limiting the lip’s ability to flare and curl.

Symptoms of Tongue & Lip-Tie

Tongue and lip-ties are serious and lead to many oral and health risks, and most often cause pain to the breastfeeding mother. Both mother and baby will demonstrate symptoms when baby has a tongue and/or lip-tie.

Video explaining how upper lip tie release is performed.

Read Also: Pulpotomy medicaments used in deciduous dentition

Although clamp and scissors are used in this video, alternatively, a laser can also be used. Keep in mind, video is for release and NOT frenulectomy.


Youtube / Real World Endo



3/31/2020

How early can we intercept a malocclusion in children

Orthodontic

Etiology of malocclusion can be the cause of deviation in the skeleton, dental, and soft tissue development in children.

Identifying etiology of malocclusion and dominant orthodontic problems as well as early detection could help in future effective treatment, management, and public health planning.

Malocclusions in children is an increasing problem, which in many cases is misdiagnosed.

A recent study reported that around 90 percent of the children in primary and early mixed dentition present signs of a developing malocclusion.

Read Also: ORAL MEDICINE : Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case


Youtube / Kidsmalocclusions 1
Image : Decisions in Dentistry



ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

Oral Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a yeast germ called Candida. The mouth is a common site where Candida causes infection. Candidal infection in the mouth is called oral thrush.

Other common sites for thrush to develop are the vagina, nappy area, and nail folds.

Small numbers of Candida organisms commonly live on healthy skin and in a healthy mouth.

They are usually harmless. However, an overgrowth of Candida can occur in the mouth of some babies. This can cause a bout of oral thrush.

This overgrowth may happen because the baby's immune system is still quite immature and so it cannot control the Candida levels.

You may also like ORAL PATHOLOGY : Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report

Another possible cause for oral thrush infection is if your baby has had a recent course of antibiotic medication.

This is because the antibiotics can kill off healthy germs (bacteria) that live in your baby's mouth. These healthy bacteria normally help to control the levels of Candida in your baby's mouth.

If there are fewer healthy bacteria around, candidal overgrowth can occur. Also, if you are breast-feeding and you have recently been on antibiotics yourself, the levels of your healthy bacteria can be affected. This can make you, or your baby, more likely to develop thrush.


Youtube / ehowhealth



ORTHODONTIC : Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1

Emergency Pediatric Dentistry

It is important to have a clear picture of how a child is changing dentally and skeletally throughout his or her growth period.

In fact the American Association of Orthodontists recommends that every child have an orthodontic examination by the age of seven.


The early treatment examination in the mixed dentition enables the practitioner to identify problems at an early stage, and to determine when to commence treatment and/or refer patients to an orthodontist.

Things to look for during a mixed dentition examination include crowding of permanent teeth, excessive overjet or overbite, missing primary teeth needed for space maintenance, supernumerary teeth, skeletal discrepancies, habits, airway problems, and eruption path problems.

Read Also: ORTHODONTICS : Serial extraction of primary teeth

Introduction

This continuing dental education article is being written to describe the need for early examination and diagnosis of malocclusions in growing children.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°dentalacademyofce.com
°Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1
°Written by: Michael Florman, DDS / Rob Veis, DDS / Mark M. Alarabi, DDS, CECSMO / Mahtab Partovi, DDS

3/30/2020

ENDODONTICS : Is root canal treatment required in milk teeth?


Especially for baby teeth parents think that if the tooth is going to fall off why do we need a root canal treatment.

We do root canal treatment when the decay usually effects the enamel crosses the enamel goes to the dentin from the dentin to the inner nerve or the pulp of the tooth at thus stage we really can't get off the with just doing the filling in the tooth that's when the nerve of the tooth is treated.

So during the root canal treatment we do remove the nerve of the tooth and filling material is placed inside the root and a tooth colored cap is placed on top to restore the tooth.

If the child is very young we do need to keep it till 12-13 years, that tooth is going to last them long and exfoliate at the right time, that in turn effecting the permanent tooth erupt normally.

Read Also: DENTAL TRAUMA : Treatment options for broken down permanent teeth in the mixed dentition

Hence it is very important to do a root canal treatment if it is needed in a primary teeth and also if left untreated it can lead to causing of an abases, bone loss underneath that can cause severe pain and infection in the tooth.


Youtube / Doctors' Circle - Ask Doctors. Free Video Answers.