Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Pathology. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Pathology. Mostrar todas las entradas


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Congenital epulis with auto-resolution: case report

Congenital epulis

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign lesion that affects the oral cavity of newborns, and presents histological features which are similar to those of granular cell tumor.

The origin of this lesion has not been fully elucidated, and many hypotheses are considered due to the large variety of cell types observed in histological sections.

Epulis development occurs further in the prenatal period, and is more common in newborn females, frequently in the maxilla.

This lesion usually is presentend as a nodule covered by normal oral mucosa, which in some cases, interferes with baby's breathing and feeding.

This report describes the case of a two-month-old male baby who presented a pedunculated intraoral lesion in the mandibular alveolar ridge.

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Histological sections revealed presence of mucosal fragments with atrophic squamous stratified epithelium, and fibrous connective tissue composed of cells with granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm.

A few days after initial exam, the lesion detached from alveolar ridge, and healed spontaneously.


° Adriane Sousa de SIQUEIRA, Márcia Regina Dias de CARVALHO, Ana Celina Dourado MONTEIRO, Maria das Graças Rodrigues PINHEIRO, Lucas Rodrigues PINHEIRO, João de Jesus Viana PINHEIRO


Deformity of the tongue in an infant: Riga-Fede disease

Dental Emergency

Riga-Fede is the rare condition of benign ulceration caused by repeti-tive trauma to the lingual tissues by the teeth in children younger than two years of age.

The differential diagnosis includes infective and neoplastic conditions.

Histological diagnosis is required when the symptoms fail to resolve with standard management.

The case involv-ing an 11-month-old girl who presented with ulceration of the tongue, resulting in a reasonable defect of the tongue tip, is reported in the present article.

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Following excisional biopsy, the lesion healed without subsequent recurrence.

Riga-Fede disease should be consid-ered in infants presenting with oral ulceration. Extraction of the offending teeth should be considered when associated with failure to thrive or failed conservative management.


°Karen A Eley / Pauline A Watt-Smith / Stephen R Watt-Smith

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

oral pathology

Human dentitions are subject to considerable variation in size, form, number of teeth and to the structure of the dental tissues.

Disorders of the development of teeth may be inheritedor acquired.

The primary dentition begins to form at approximately six weeks in utero and the permanent dentition continues through late adolescence.

The dentition is thereforesusceptible to environmental influencesfor many years.

Diagnosing abnormal dental development requires thorough evaluation of the patient, including a medical, dental and family history, clinical examination, and radiographic evaluation and, in some cases, special laboratory tests are also required.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review

Genetic consultation is important not merely to put a name to the condition, but also to give appropriate advice on the prognosis and the risk of recurrence in future generations.

It is impossible, in the context of this article, to describe in detail all dental anomalies that occur in children.


Jinous F Tahmassebi / Peter F Day / Kyriacos Jack Toumba


ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

Oral Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a yeast germ called Candida. The mouth is a common site where Candida causes infection. Candidal infection in the mouth is called oral thrush.

Other common sites for thrush to develop are the vagina, nappy area, and nail folds.

Small numbers of Candida organisms commonly live on healthy skin and in a healthy mouth.

They are usually harmless. However, an overgrowth of Candida can occur in the mouth of some babies. This can cause a bout of oral thrush.

This overgrowth may happen because the baby's immune system is still quite immature and so it cannot control the Candida levels.

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Another possible cause for oral thrush infection is if your baby has had a recent course of antibiotic medication.

This is because the antibiotics can kill off healthy germs (bacteria) that live in your baby's mouth. These healthy bacteria normally help to control the levels of Candida in your baby's mouth.

If there are fewer healthy bacteria around, candidal overgrowth can occur. Also, if you are breast-feeding and you have recently been on antibiotics yourself, the levels of your healthy bacteria can be affected. This can make you, or your baby, more likely to develop thrush.

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BRUXISM : Clinical management of childhood bruxism


Bruxism is considered an involuntary nonfunctional activity of the masticatory system and is characterized by teeth clenching or grinding.

Classified as a psychophysiological disorder, it may occur during sleep or waking, consciously or unconsciously.

This habit is common during childhood and may have negative consequences on the stomatognathic system.

Its prevalence in children ranges from 7% to 15.1%8 and girls are more often affected. The etiology of bruxism is not completely elucidated10 and may involve local, systemic and psychological factors, or be related to sleep disorders.

The diagnosis of sleep consists of clinical signs and symptoms such as tooth wear, pain in the facial muscles, headaches reported or observed by polysomnographic changes (in cases of nocturnal bruxism).

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Injuries in the tooth structure and supporting tissues of the resulting bruxism can lead to hypersensitivity to temperature changes, tooth mobility, injuries in the periodontal and periodontal ligament, hypercementosis, fracture cusps, pulpitis and pulp necrosis.

Other complications associated with bruxism include gum recession, bone resorption, hypertrophy of mastication muscles and temporomandibular disorders.

Clinical interventions aim to protect dental structures, reduce ranger, relief facial and temporal pain and promote improvements in sleep quality.


°RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia
°Thays de Almeida ALFAYA / Patrícia Nivoloni TANNURE / Roberta BARCELOS / Etyene Castro DIP / Luciana UEMOTO / Cresus Vinícius Depes GOUVÊA


HIV : Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus in children


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO).

From its discovery in 1981 to 2006, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people.

HIV infects about 0.6% of the world's population. In 2005, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4-3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. Most of the cases are seen in sub-Saharan countries and developing nations.

Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity rates of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. HIV transmission in children occurs mainly through vertical transmission (mother to child).

The risk of transmission by an infected mother occurring before or during birth (without medical intervention) is around 15-20%. Breast feeding by an infected mother increases the risk by 5-20% to a total of 20- 45%.

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In a study conducted in Brazil, vertical transmission was seen in 97.5% in children. Studies in India had reported that vertical transmission is seen in 51 to 83% of children.

Oral manifestations are amongst the earliest and most important indicators of HIV infection. At present three groups of oral manifestations are defined by Greenspan et al, based on their intensity and features.


°Srinivas Rao Ponnam, Gautam Srivastava, Kotaih Theruru

Esthetic Reconstruction of Teeth in Patient with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta – A Case Report

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta

Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is the result of a dominant genetic defect and affects both the deciduous and permanent dentitions.

It is characterized by opalescent teeth composed of irregularly formed and undemineralized dentin which obliterates pulp chamber and root canal.

DI can appear as a separate disorder or with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).

The teeth with DI show a grayish-blue to brown hue with dislodged enamel, dysplastic dentine with irregular dentinal tubules and interglobular dentine, short roots and pulpal obliteration, which all may lead to rapid and extensive attrition which require adequate crown reconstruction.

The aim of this study was to show a reconstruction of frontal teeth in upper jaw with direct composite veneers in young adult patient with DI.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1

Introduction : Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is a hereditary defect consisting of opalescent teeth composed of irregularly formed and undemineralized dentin that obliterates the pulp chamber and root canals.

DI may be present as a single disorder or in association with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).


° A. Kne`evi} et al.: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, Coll. Antropol. 30 (2006) 1: 231–234