Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Pathology. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Pathology. Mostrar todas las entradas


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Congenital epulis with auto-resolution: case report

Congenital epulis

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign lesion that affects the oral cavity of newborns, and presents histological features which are similar to those of granular cell tumor.

The origin of this lesion has not been fully elucidated, and many hypotheses are considered due to the large variety of cell types observed in histological sections.

Epulis development occurs further in the prenatal period, and is more common in newborn females, frequently in the maxilla.

This lesion usually is presentend as a nodule covered by normal oral mucosa, which in some cases, interferes with baby's breathing and feeding.

This report describes the case of a two-month-old male baby who presented a pedunculated intraoral lesion in the mandibular alveolar ridge.

Read Also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days

Histological sections revealed presence of mucosal fragments with atrophic squamous stratified epithelium, and fibrous connective tissue composed of cells with granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm.

A few days after initial exam, the lesion detached from alveolar ridge, and healed spontaneously.


° Adriane Sousa de SIQUEIRA, Márcia Regina Dias de CARVALHO, Ana Celina Dourado MONTEIRO, Maria das Graças Rodrigues PINHEIRO, Lucas Rodrigues PINHEIRO, João de Jesus Viana PINHEIRO


Deformity of the tongue in an infant: Riga-Fede disease

Dental Emergency

Riga-Fede is the rare condition of benign ulceration caused by repeti-tive trauma to the lingual tissues by the teeth in children younger than two years of age.

The differential diagnosis includes infective and neoplastic conditions.

Histological diagnosis is required when the symptoms fail to resolve with standard management.

The case involv-ing an 11-month-old girl who presented with ulceration of the tongue, resulting in a reasonable defect of the tongue tip, is reported in the present article.

Read Also: Idiopathic Gingival Hyperplasia: A Case Report with a 17-Year Followup

Following excisional biopsy, the lesion healed without subsequent recurrence.

Riga-Fede disease should be consid-ered in infants presenting with oral ulceration. Extraction of the offending teeth should be considered when associated with failure to thrive or failed conservative management.


°Karen A Eley / Pauline A Watt-Smith / Stephen R Watt-Smith

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

oral pathology

Human dentitions are subject to considerable variation in size, form, number of teeth and to the structure of the dental tissues.

Disorders of the development of teeth may be inheritedor acquired.

The primary dentition begins to form at approximately six weeks in utero and the permanent dentition continues through late adolescence.

The dentition is thereforesusceptible to environmental influencesfor many years.

Diagnosing abnormal dental development requires thorough evaluation of the patient, including a medical, dental and family history, clinical examination, and radiographic evaluation and, in some cases, special laboratory tests are also required.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review

Genetic consultation is important not merely to put a name to the condition, but also to give appropriate advice on the prognosis and the risk of recurrence in future generations.

It is impossible, in the context of this article, to describe in detail all dental anomalies that occur in children.


Jinous F Tahmassebi / Peter F Day / Kyriacos Jack Toumba


ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

Oral Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a yeast germ called Candida. The mouth is a common site where Candida causes infection. Candidal infection in the mouth is called oral thrush.

Other common sites for thrush to develop are the vagina, nappy area, and nail folds.

Small numbers of Candida organisms commonly live on healthy skin and in a healthy mouth.

They are usually harmless. However, an overgrowth of Candida can occur in the mouth of some babies. This can cause a bout of oral thrush.

This overgrowth may happen because the baby's immune system is still quite immature and so it cannot control the Candida levels.

You may also like ORAL PATHOLOGY : Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report

Another possible cause for oral thrush infection is if your baby has had a recent course of antibiotic medication.

This is because the antibiotics can kill off healthy germs (bacteria) that live in your baby's mouth. These healthy bacteria normally help to control the levels of Candida in your baby's mouth.

If there are fewer healthy bacteria around, candidal overgrowth can occur. Also, if you are breast-feeding and you have recently been on antibiotics yourself, the levels of your healthy bacteria can be affected. This can make you, or your baby, more likely to develop thrush.

Youtube / ehowhealth


BRUXISM : Clinical management of childhood bruxism


Bruxism is considered an involuntary nonfunctional activity of the masticatory system and is characterized by teeth clenching or grinding.

Classified as a psychophysiological disorder, it may occur during sleep or waking, consciously or unconsciously.

This habit is common during childhood and may have negative consequences on the stomatognathic system.

Its prevalence in children ranges from 7% to 15.1%8 and girls are more often affected. The etiology of bruxism is not completely elucidated10 and may involve local, systemic and psychological factors, or be related to sleep disorders.

The diagnosis of sleep consists of clinical signs and symptoms such as tooth wear, pain in the facial muscles, headaches reported or observed by polysomnographic changes (in cases of nocturnal bruxism).

Read Also: BRUXISM in children: A warning sign for psychological problems

Injuries in the tooth structure and supporting tissues of the resulting bruxism can lead to hypersensitivity to temperature changes, tooth mobility, injuries in the periodontal and periodontal ligament, hypercementosis, fracture cusps, pulpitis and pulp necrosis.

Other complications associated with bruxism include gum recession, bone resorption, hypertrophy of mastication muscles and temporomandibular disorders.

Clinical interventions aim to protect dental structures, reduce ranger, relief facial and temporal pain and promote improvements in sleep quality.


°RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia
°Thays de Almeida ALFAYA / Patrícia Nivoloni TANNURE / Roberta BARCELOS / Etyene Castro DIP / Luciana UEMOTO / Cresus Vinícius Depes GOUVÊA


HIV : Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus in children


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO).

From its discovery in 1981 to 2006, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people.

HIV infects about 0.6% of the world's population. In 2005, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4-3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. Most of the cases are seen in sub-Saharan countries and developing nations.

Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity rates of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. HIV transmission in children occurs mainly through vertical transmission (mother to child).

The risk of transmission by an infected mother occurring before or during birth (without medical intervention) is around 15-20%. Breast feeding by an infected mother increases the risk by 5-20% to a total of 20- 45%.

Read Also: Hypoplastic Enamel Treatment in Permanent Anterior Teeth of a Child

In a study conducted in Brazil, vertical transmission was seen in 97.5% in children. Studies in India had reported that vertical transmission is seen in 51 to 83% of children.

Oral manifestations are amongst the earliest and most important indicators of HIV infection. At present three groups of oral manifestations are defined by Greenspan et al, based on their intensity and features.


°Srinivas Rao Ponnam, Gautam Srivastava, Kotaih Theruru

Esthetic Reconstruction of Teeth in Patient with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta – A Case Report

Dentinogenesis Imperfecta

Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is the result of a dominant genetic defect and affects both the deciduous and permanent dentitions.

It is characterized by opalescent teeth composed of irregularly formed and undemineralized dentin which obliterates pulp chamber and root canal.

DI can appear as a separate disorder or with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).

The teeth with DI show a grayish-blue to brown hue with dislodged enamel, dysplastic dentine with irregular dentinal tubules and interglobular dentine, short roots and pulpal obliteration, which all may lead to rapid and extensive attrition which require adequate crown reconstruction.

The aim of this study was to show a reconstruction of frontal teeth in upper jaw with direct composite veneers in young adult patient with DI.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1

Introduction : Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is a hereditary defect consisting of opalescent teeth composed of irregularly formed and undemineralized dentin that obliterates the pulp chamber and root canals.

DI may be present as a single disorder or in association with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).


° A. Kne`evi} et al.: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, Coll. Antropol. 30 (2006) 1: 231–234


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Guideline on Dental Management of Heritable Dental Developmental Anomalies


The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recognizes that pediatric dentists are uniquely qualified to manage the oral health care needs of children with heritable dental developmental anomalies.

These children have multiple, complex problems as their dental conditions affect both form and function and can have significant psychological impact.

These conditions may present early in life and require both immediate intervention and management of a protracted nature, including coordination of multi-disciplinary care.

The AAPD’s Guideline on Management of Dental Patients with Special Health Care Needs alludes to this patient population but does not make specific treatment recommendations for the oral manifestations of such diagnoses.

This guideline is intended to address the diagnosis, principles of management, and objectives of therapy of children with heritable dental developmental anomalies rather than provide specific treatment recommendations.

Read Also: EMERGENCY : Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: approach for dental treatment

This guideline will focus on the following heritable dental developmental anomalies: amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and dentin dysplasia (DD).

Ectodermal dysplasia has been thoroughly studied and reported in the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia’s “Parameters of Oral Health Care for Individuals Affected by Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndromes.” Refer to that document for care of children with ectodermal dysplasia




ORAL PATHOLOGY : Oral lichen planus in childhood

Oral Hygiene

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by mucosal lesions of varying appearance and severity.

It affects 1 to 2 percent of the general adult population; the reported prevalence rates in the Indian population is 2.6 percent.

Oral lichen planus has been reported to be more frequent in females and occurs more predominantly in Asians.

The clinical presentation of OLP ranges from mild painless white keratotic lesions to painful erosions and ulcerations. Oral lichen planus is classified into reticular, erosive, atrophic, and bullous types.

The reticular form is the most common type and presents as papules and plaques with interlacing white keratotic lines (Wickham striae) with an erythematous border.

The striae are typically located bilaterally on the buccal mucosa, mucobuccal fold, gingiva, and less commonly, the tongue, palate, and lips. The reticular type has been reported to occur significantly more often in men compared to women and is usually asymptomatic. Erosive, atrophic, or bullous type lesions cause burning sensation and pain.

Read Also: ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental erosion in children: A literature review

Oral lichen planus affects primarily middle-aged adults and is rare in children. There are few reports of childhood OLP in children in the literature. This article describes a rare case involving a 7-year-old child affected with OLP who was successfully treated with topical application of corticosteroid cream and plaque control regime.

Case description

A seven-year-old boy reported to the Department of Pedodontics with a complaint of white discoloration of the lips and tongue for the past eight months.

He gave a history of occasional soreness of the tongue while eating spicy foods. His medical and family histories were unremarkable and there was no history of any drug intake during the last 12 months. On examination, no cutaneous lesions were evident other than areas of gray to whitish striae arranged in lacy pattern on upper and lower lips.

The intraoral examination revealed white striae affecting the posterior buccal mucosa, dorsal surface and lateral borders of the tongue, and the floor of the mouth. The dorsal surface of the tongue showed two areas of depapillation and white patches in a circinate pattern measuring approximately 1.5 x 2.0 cm. The patient presented with a partial tongue-tie and was in the early mixed dentition stage with carious lesions in the lower left first and second primary molars; no amalgam restorations were evident.

Generalized mild to moderate plaque accumulation was seen. There were no signs of ulceration and the symptoms of discomfort were exacerbated by spicy foods. Routine hematological investigations and biochemistry yielded negative results. An incisional biopsy of the lower labial mucosa on histo-pathological examination showed hyperparakeratosis of stratified squamous epithelium and basal cell degeneration.

A dense band-like lymphocytic infiltration was found at the epithelial-connective tissue interface and there were areas of atrophic epithelium with saw-tooth rete ridges. Histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of oral lichen planus. The patient was educated and motivated regarding a proper plaque control regimen that included brushing thrice daily with a soft brush and tooth paste and rinsing twice daily with alcohol free chlorhexidine.

The patient was advised to avoid eating spicy foods while his lichen planus was active and to use topical corticosteroid cream containing 0.1 percent triamcinolone acetonide (Kenacort), when symptomatic.

Initial review after a three-month period showed a reduction in symptoms and severity of the reticular lichen planus. The patient is currently continuing follow-up.


The exact etiology of OLP is not well understood. However, OLP occurrence is related to a T-cell mediated immune response. Activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor kappaB , and the inhibition of the transforming growth factor control pathway may result in the hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes, thereby causing the white lesions in OLP.

Current data suggests that OLP is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which autocytotoxic CD8+ T-cells trigger the apoptosis of oral epithelial cells, leading to chronic inflammation. The reported prevalence of OLP in childhood is 0.03 percent, a figure significantly lower than that seen in adults.

This difference in prevalence rates has been partially attributed to the low number of associated systemic diseases, autoimmune phenomena, drugs, and dental restorations in childhood. Moreover, as the onset of OLP is insidious, the diagnosis may be missed because of irregular dental visits, a low level of symptoms, and ignorance .

Studies have related higher levels of anxiety and depression, mechanical trauma of dental procedures, lip chewing habits, and intake of citrus and spicy foods to the exacerbation of OLP. Chronic low-grade irritation from dental plaque and calculus has been suggested to cause exacerbation of gingival lichen planus. In our patient the gingivae were not affected with lichen planus in spite of mild to moderate accumulation of plaque.

Moreover, exacerbation of symptoms in our patient may be related to intake of spicy foods. Absence of cutaneous involvement in the present case is not unusual considering that associated lesions are typically found in only approximately 15 percent of patients with OLP. Handa and Sahoo had reported that seven out of 87 cases of childhood lichen planus presented with concomitant involvement of the oral mucosa and that only one child had isolated OLP. They suggested less common involvement of oral mucosa in children with lichen planus compared to that in adults.

However, Sharma and Maheshwari reported concomitant oral lesions in 15 cases of the total 50 children affected with LP. Our case can be considered rare and unique owing to its age of occurrence and involvement of lips, which has been reported to be less common. The diagnosis may be made using clinical features alone or may require clinicopathologic correlation to rule out malignant conditions or atypical presentations.

The differential diagnosis depends on the age of the patient, clinical variant of OLP, and the severity and persistence of lesions. The clinical differential diagnoses include lichenoid drug reaction (LR), leukoplakia, lupus erythematous, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). Lichenoid reactions to dental amalgam and drugs have been reported to exhibit histopathologic features similar to OLP. A detailed history and absence of amalgam restorations excluded the possible diagnosis of LR in the present case.

The age of the patient, pathognomonic appearance of reticular OLP (Wickham striae) on the buccal mucosa, and the histopathologic findings excluded the possibility of lupus erythematous, leukoplakia, and GVHD. Various studies have reported possible association or non-association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and lichen planus and have related this to variations in genetic, environmental, and geographic factors. However, no such association was found in the present case.

Children affected with OLP are often asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. The recommended treatment goal for most cases of lichen planus is controlling the severity of symptoms because there is no established cure.

The most widely accepted treatment for lesions of OLP includes topical or systemic corticosteroids. Topical corticosteroids are the drugs of choice for treating mild to moderate symptomatic OLP because they have fewer side effects. However, widespread, symptomatic lesions require systemic drugs. Most patients with the reticular pattern of lichen planus are asymptomatic and require no active treatment.

In the present case reticular lesions were successfully managed with topical application of 0.1 percent triamcinolone acetonide cream, chlorhexidine rinse, and a plaque control regimen.

Plaque control is crucial because OLP is an inflammatory condition and local irritants, such as plaque and calculus, consistently trigger exacerbations. An alcohol-free rinse should be prescribed to avoid desiccation and irritation of oral tissues. Furthermore, prophylactic use of 0.12 percent chlorhexidine gluconate rinse reduces the incidence of candidiasis during the corticosteroid therapy.

Other documented modalities of OLP treatment include retinoids, cyclosporine rinse, PUVA treatment, dapsone, and cryotherapy. The use of other modalities such as CO2 laser, Diode laser, and photodynamic therapy have also been reported.


Topical corticosteroid therapy and a plaque control regimen in children with symptomatic reticular OLP have shown favorable responses. Although OLP in childhood is rare, pedodontists should be aware of its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. Although not yet reported in children, periodic follow-up visits should be emphasized to evaluate possible malignant transformation.

°M GunaShekhar MDS, Reddy Sudhakar MDS, Mohammad Shahul MDS, John Tenny MDS, Manyam Ravikanth MDS, N Manikyakumar BDS


Idiopathic multiple unerupted permanent teeth: A rare case report

Oral medicine

A disturbed eruption process creates a clinical situation that is challenging to diagnose and treat.

The clinical spectrum of tooth eruption disorders includes both syndromic and nonsyndromic problems ranging from delayed eruption to a complete failure of eruption.

Failure of permanent teeth to erupt without obvious etiology is a rare dental anomaly. Various local and systemic factors have been implicated in failure of eruption of multiple permanent teeth.

The present case report discusses the clinical and radiographic details of a 21-year-old asymptomatic and nonsyndromic patient with multiple unerupted permanent teeth.

Introduction : Tooth eruption has been defined as the movement of a tooth in an axial and occlusal direction from its developmental position within the jaw to its final functional position in the occlusal plane.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1

The eruption pattern of deciduous and permanent teeth is usually comprehensive and takes place at different chronological age levels. A significant deviation in eruption of tooth, premature eruption and delayed tooth eruption are commonly noted in a clinical practice.

Possible etiologies for failure of eruption of teeth fall into two broad categories: systemic and local factors. Some of the systemic conditions that can lead to delayed or failed eruption are genetic disorders such as cleidocranial dysplasia, Gardner syndrome and osteopetrosis.

Sandra Vani / Anitha Nooney / Kakarla Subba Raju / Melpati Hemadri


ORAL SURGERY : Conservative treatment of the dentigerous cyst: report of two cases in childrens

Dentigerous Cyst

The purpose of this paper is to present two cases of dentigerous cyst associated to permanent teeth in children treated by conservative techniques.

Dentigerous cyst is the most common developmental cysts of the jaws.

Conservative treatment is very effective to this entity and aims at eliminating the cystic tissue and preserving the permanent tooth involved in the pathology.

Two techniques are described as conservative treatment for these cysts, marsupialization and the decompression. Two children presented with dentigerous cysts.

A female child was affected by a large lesion at the right side of the mandible associated to tooth 45. The other lesion arose at the left maxilla associated to tooth 21 of a male child. Each dentigerous cyst promoted severe tooth displacement.

The first patient was treated with decompression and the second with marsupialization.

Read Also: ORAL SURGERY : Guideline on Pediatric Oral Surgery


Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic development cyst. It can involve any included tooth, although molars and canines are the most affected ones. Cystic formation involving the crown of premolars and incisives is rare.


°Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences
°Manoela Carrera; Danilo Borges Dantas; Antônio Mareio Marchionni; Marília Gerhardt de Oliveira; Miguel Gustavo Setúbal Andrade


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Pre-eruptive causes for intrinsic discoloration

stainless steel crown

Discoloration of the tooth can erode the sparkle from a smile.

There are many factors that contribute to tooth staining.

It is important to understand that in some cases staining can be prevented but in others it cannot.

There are two types of tooth discoloration: extrinsic which affects teeth from the outside and intrinsic which affects the teeth from the inside.

Pre-eruptive causes for intrinsic discoloration :

Alkaptonuria: This inborn error of metabolism results in incomplete metabolism of tyrosine and phenylalanine. This affects the permanent dentition by causing a brown discoloration.

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria: This is a rare, recessive, autosomal, metabolic disorder in which there is an error in porphyrin metabolism leading to the accumulation of porphyrins in bone marrow, red blood cells, urine and teeth. A red-brown discoloration of the teeth is the result and the affected teeth show a red fluorescence under ultra-violet light.

Read Also: Hypoplastic Enamel Treatment in Permanent Anterior Teeth of a Child

Congenital hyperbilirubinaemia: The breakdown products of haemolysis will cause a yellow-green discoloration. Mild neonatal jaundice is relatively common, but in rhesus incompatibility massive haemolysis will lead to deposition of bile pigments in the calcifying dental hard tissues, particularly at the neonatal line.

Amelogenesis imperfect : In this hereditary condition, enamel formation is disturbed with regard to mineralization or matrix formation and is classified accordingly. There are 14 different subtypes; the majority is inherited as an autosomal dominant or x-linked trait with varying degrees of expressivity. The appearance varies from the relatively mild hypomature ‘snow-capped’ enamel to the more severe hereditary hypoplasia with thin, hard enamel which has a yellow to yellow-brown appearance.

Dentinogenesis imperfect : The condition is hereditary and there is no treatment. Dentinogenesis imperfect has been classified into three types for diagnostic purposes:

Type I refers to affected teeth in patients who also have osteogenesis imperfect.
Type II refers to affected teeth as an isolated dental trait.
Type III refers exclusively to affected teeth of a racial isolate in southern Maryland, and is known as the “Brandywine Isolate”.

The main condition related to the dentine alone is Dentinogenesis imperfect II (hereditary opalescent dentine). Both dentitions are affected, the primary dentition usually more severely.

The teeth are usually bluish or brown in color, and demonstrate opalescence on transillumination. Once the dentine is exposed, teeth rapidly show brown discoloration, presumably by absorption of chromogens into the porous dentine.

In this condition, the teeth may be outwardly similar to both types I and II of Dentinogenesis imperfect. Radiographically, the teeth may take on the appearance of ‘shell teeth’ as dentine production ceases after the mantle layer has formed.

°Dental News Articles
°Dr. Sawsan Nasreddine, Dr. Fida Sayah, Dr. Fady Kassir, and Pr. Mounir Doumit, of the Lebanese University, School of Dentistry


ORAL REHABILITATION : Early oral rehabilitation of a child with amelogenesis imperfecta

Oral Rehabilitation

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited disorder which results in enamel defects.

The main clinical characteristics are extensive loss of tooth tissue, poor esthetics and tooth sensitivity.

Early recognition followed by appropriate preventive care and oral rehabilitation is essential in the successful management of AI.

This clinical report describes the management of a 3 year-old girl with a hypocalcified type of Al.

The patient presented early extensive tissue loss of the superior incisors and molars, with general dentinal sensitivity.

The first phase of the treatment was preventive measures to improve dental and periodontal health. On the second phase the anterior teeth were extracted and the molars were endodontic treated and covered with stainless steel crowns.

Read Also: EMERGENCY : Multidisciplinary approach in the immediate replantation of a maxillary central incisor

A functional appliance was made to rehabilitate the anterior extracted teeth on the third phase.

The performed treatment achieved satisfactory esthetic and function, which resulted in an improvement in the child’s quality of life.


°Natalino Lourenço Neto / Marco A.B. Paschoal / Tatiana Y. Kobayashi / Daniela Rios1, Salete M.B. Silva


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report

In 1950, Massler and Savara introduced the now commonly used terms “natal teeth” for teeth present at birth and “neonatal teeth” for teeth that erupt within the first 30 days of life.

The most common natal and neonatal teeth are the mandibular central incisors.

In most cases, these teeth represent the true primary teeth and are not supernumerary teeth.

In King and Lee’s4 1989 report, 44 subjects presented with natal and neonatal teeth that were part of the primary dentition. In light of this knowledge, these teeth should be left in the mouth to avoid future space management issues.

On occasion, they will exfoliate spontaneously or require extraction because of excessive mobility, concerns regarding aspiration or the loss of attachment with subsequent development of abscess.

Read Also: PEDIATRIC ORAL PATHOLOGY : Odontogenic Cysts

They may also be extracted to alleviate feeding difficulties including Riga-Fede disease, where the presence of natal or neonatal teeth in association with nursing or sucking leads to ulceration of the ventral surface of the tongue.


°Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report
°Heather Dyment • Ross Anderson • Janice Humphrey • Isabelle Chase


ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental erosion in children: A literature review


Dental erosion, defined as the progressive, irreversible loss of dental hard tissues

By a chemical process without bacterial involvement, is currently considered a significant clinical challenge.

Even though erosion has been considered the major component of toothwear in children, it often co-exists with other forms of toothwear such as attrition (wear resulting from tooth to tooth grinding) and abrasion (wear resulting from tooth to other hard surfaces).

As subjects with erosion in the primary dentition have increased risk of erosion in the permanent dentition, early diagnosis and prevention from an early age will help prevent damage to the permanent teeth.

Read Also: ORAL SURGERY : Guideline on Pediatric Oral Surgery

Erosion in children may be associated with many clinical problems such as dental hypersensitivity, altered occlusion, eating difficulties, poor aesthetics, pulp exposure and abscesses.

The aim of this paper was to critically review the literature on dental erosion in children with regard to its aetiology, prevalence, associated clinical conditions and prevention.


°Australian Dental Journal
°S Taji, WK Seow


Delayed tooth eruption: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. A literature review


Delayed tooth eruption (DTE) is the emergence of a tooth into the oral cavity at a time that deviates significantly from norms established for different races, ethnicities, and sexes.

This article reviews the local and systemic conditions under which DTE has been reported to occur. The terminology related to disturbances in tooth eruption is also reviewed and clarified.

A diagnostic algorithm is proposed to aid the clinician in the diagnosis and treatment planning of DTE.

The sequential and timely eruption of teeth is critical to the timing of treatment and the selection of an orthodontic treatment modality. This review addresses the need for a more in-depth understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of DTE and gives the clinician a methodology to approach its diagnosis and treatment.

Eruption is the axial movement of a tooth from its nonfunctional position in the bone to functional occlusion. However, eruption is often used to indicate the moment of emergence of the tooth into the oral cavity.

► Read Also:

° ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: approach for dental treatment
° ORAL SURGERY : Surgical techniques for the treatment of ankyloglossia in children

The normal eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth into the oral cavity occurs over a broad chronologic age range.

Racial, ethnic, sexual, and individual factors can influence eruption and are usually considered in determining the standards of normal eruption.

True and significant deviations from accepted norms of eruption time are often observed in clinical practice. Premature eruption has been noted, but delayed tooth eruption (DTE) is the most commonly encountered deviation from normal eruption time.

American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Lokesh Suri, BDS, DMD, MS / Eleni Gagari, DDS, DMSc and Heleni Vastardis, DDS, DMSc