Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Medicine. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Oral Medicine. Mostrar todas las entradas

4/14/2020

CLINICAL CASE : Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11 year old child

Clinical Case

A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy.

This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child.

A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient’s medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures.


A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging.

The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

Read Also: EMERGENCY : Multidisciplinary approach in the immediate replantation of a maxillary central incisor

Introduction : Dental abscesses and facial cellulitis put dentists on alert for potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis or airway obstruction, but the risk of a brain abscess is a complication of odontogenic infection that dentists rarely consider.

This report describes the case of an 11-year-old boy whose brain abscess and associated neurological signs were most likely attributable to an abscessed primary molar.

The description of the neurological signs and symptoms, and the history and management of this case will inform dentists about the real possibility of a brain abscess of dental origin.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°jcda.ca
°Canadian Dental Association
°Dr. Hibberd / Dr. Nguyen

4/05/2020

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Congenital epulis with auto-resolution: case report

Congenital epulis

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign lesion that affects the oral cavity of newborns, and presents histological features which are similar to those of granular cell tumor.

The origin of this lesion has not been fully elucidated, and many hypotheses are considered due to the large variety of cell types observed in histological sections.

Epulis development occurs further in the prenatal period, and is more common in newborn females, frequently in the maxilla.



This lesion usually is presentend as a nodule covered by normal oral mucosa, which in some cases, interferes with baby's breathing and feeding.

This report describes the case of a two-month-old male baby who presented a pedunculated intraoral lesion in the mandibular alveolar ridge.

Read Also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days

Histological sections revealed presence of mucosal fragments with atrophic squamous stratified epithelium, and fibrous connective tissue composed of cells with granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm.

A few days after initial exam, the lesion detached from alveolar ridge, and healed spontaneously.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° Adriane Sousa de SIQUEIRA, Márcia Regina Dias de CARVALHO, Ana Celina Dourado MONTEIRO, Maria das Graças Rodrigues PINHEIRO, Lucas Rodrigues PINHEIRO, João de Jesus Viana PINHEIRO



4/03/2020

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

oral pathology

Human dentitions are subject to considerable variation in size, form, number of teeth and to the structure of the dental tissues.

Disorders of the development of teeth may be inheritedor acquired.

The primary dentition begins to form at approximately six weeks in utero and the permanent dentition continues through late adolescence.

The dentition is thereforesusceptible to environmental influencesfor many years.

Diagnosing abnormal dental development requires thorough evaluation of the patient, including a medical, dental and family history, clinical examination, and radiographic evaluation and, in some cases, special laboratory tests are also required.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review

Genetic consultation is important not merely to put a name to the condition, but also to give appropriate advice on the prognosis and the risk of recurrence in future generations.

It is impossible, in the context of this article, to describe in detail all dental anomalies that occur in children.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


Jinous F Tahmassebi / Peter F Day / Kyriacos Jack Toumba



4/02/2020

An Interdisciplinary Approach for Rehabilitating a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has been defined as a group of hereditary enamel defects. It can be characterized by enamel hypoplasia, hypomaturation, or hypocalcification of the teeth.

AI may be associated with some other dental and skeletal developmental defects. Restoration for patients with this condition should be oriented toward the functional and esthetic rehabilitation.

This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young patient diagnosed with the hypoplastic type of AI in posterior teeth and hypomatured type of AI in anterior teeth.

Introduction : Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a diverse group of hereditary disorders that primarily affect the quantity, structure, and composition of enamel. The inheritance pattern of AI may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked.

Read Also: Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

According to the Witkop classification system, there are four main forms of AI: type I hypoplastic enamel, type II hypomatured enamel, type III hypocalcified enamel, and type IV hypomatured-hypoplastic enamel with taurodontism.

Clinical presentation of AI varies considerably among the different AI types. In the hypomature type, the affected teeth exhibit mottled, opaque white-brown or yellow discolored enamel, which is softer than normal.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° hindawi.com
° Niloufar Khodaeian / Mahmoud Sabouhi / Ebrahim Ataei



3/31/2020

ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

Oral Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a yeast germ called Candida. The mouth is a common site where Candida causes infection. Candidal infection in the mouth is called oral thrush.

Other common sites for thrush to develop are the vagina, nappy area, and nail folds.

Small numbers of Candida organisms commonly live on healthy skin and in a healthy mouth.

They are usually harmless. However, an overgrowth of Candida can occur in the mouth of some babies. This can cause a bout of oral thrush.

This overgrowth may happen because the baby's immune system is still quite immature and so it cannot control the Candida levels.

You may also like ORAL PATHOLOGY : Residual Neonatal Teeth: A Case Report

Another possible cause for oral thrush infection is if your baby has had a recent course of antibiotic medication.

This is because the antibiotics can kill off healthy germs (bacteria) that live in your baby's mouth. These healthy bacteria normally help to control the levels of Candida in your baby's mouth.

If there are fewer healthy bacteria around, candidal overgrowth can occur. Also, if you are breast-feeding and you have recently been on antibiotics yourself, the levels of your healthy bacteria can be affected. This can make you, or your baby, more likely to develop thrush.


Youtube / ehowhealth



3/30/2020

ORAL MEDICINE : Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

Oral Medicine

Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is a relatively rare localized developmental anomaly of the dental tissues with specific clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics.

Crawford ascribed the first report of ROD to Hitchin in 1934, while others suggested that McCall and Wald were the first to describe this condition in 1947.

It was not until 1963, however, that Zegarelli et al coined the term “odontodysplasia” and Pindborg added the prefix “regional” in 1970.

In an extensive review of ROD in 1989, Crawford and Aldred stated females are more often affected than males (1.4:1) and that there was no association with race.

These authors listed several etiological factors such as local circulatory disorders, viral infections, pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, facial asymmetry, local trauma, metabolic disturbances, somatic and neural mutations, and syndromal involvement.

They also suggested that a combination of factors might be involved. In spite of this, ROD’s etiology remains undetermined.

Read Also: ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

The criteria for ROD diagnosis are based on clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. The maxilla is typically affected twice as often as the mandible.

Clinically, the condition is usually unilateral and rarely crosses the midline; exceptions are, however, occasionally found. In most cases in which the damage crosses the midline, only the central incisor on the opposite side is affected.

The teeth are likely to be small, brown, grooved, and hypoplastic. Eruption failure or delay is frequently seen as well as abscesses or fistulae in the absence of caries.

Radiographically, there is a lack of contrast between the enamel and dentin, both of which are less radiopaque than unaffected counterparts.

Moreover, enamel and dentin layers are thin, giving the teeth a “ghost like” appearance. The pulp chambers are large, and usually present areas of relatively radiodense tissue (pulp stones or denticles). The follicles of unerupted teeth are enlarged.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° odontologiaparabebes.com
° Abel Cahuana, PhD, MD, DDS Yndira González, DDS Camila Palma, DDS



3/28/2020

CLINICAL CASES : Crown-Root Fractures in Primary Teeth

Emergency Pediatric Dentistry

Crown-root fractures involve enamel, dentin and cement.

These are not usually found in primary dentition, and approximately 2% of all types of traumatic dental injures (TDI).


Frequently, this kind of dental trauma spreads to the subgingival or intraosseous level, which complicates the establishment of the extent and direction of fracture lines, even with the assistance of radiographic examination.

Read Also: Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

The difficulty of tooth maintenance and periodontal health require an interdisciplinary approach to enable the appropriate treatment of this type of TDI.

Crown-root fractures in primary teeth are singular events with wide variations of fracture patterns and that making the correct diagnosis and treatment plan can be complex.

In addition, there have been very few reports regarding this type of trauma and studies that describe the best approaches for each situation are necessary to enable dentists to make the best treatment decision.

Therefore, the aim of the present study was to present a case series of crown-root fractures in primary teeth of patients who were followed-up until the eruption of permanent successor teeth.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


Fuente : scielo.br
Autores : Vanessa Polina Pereira da Costa , Luisa Jardim Correa Oliveira , Denise Paiva Rosa , Mariana Gonzalez Cademartori , Dione Dias Torriani(in memoriam)