Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Articles of dentistry. Mostrar todas las entradas
Mostrando entradas con la etiqueta Articles of dentistry. Mostrar todas las entradas

4/14/2020

CLINICAL CASE : Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11 year old child

Clinical Case

A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy.

This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child.

A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient’s medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures.


A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging.

The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

Read Also: EMERGENCY : Multidisciplinary approach in the immediate replantation of a maxillary central incisor

Introduction : Dental abscesses and facial cellulitis put dentists on alert for potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis or airway obstruction, but the risk of a brain abscess is a complication of odontogenic infection that dentists rarely consider.

This report describes the case of an 11-year-old boy whose brain abscess and associated neurological signs were most likely attributable to an abscessed primary molar.

The description of the neurological signs and symptoms, and the history and management of this case will inform dentists about the real possibility of a brain abscess of dental origin.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°jcda.ca
°Canadian Dental Association
°Dr. Hibberd / Dr. Nguyen

4/06/2020

ORTHODONTIC : Guiding Unerupted Teeth into Occlusion: Case Report

ORTHODONTIC

Tooth eruption is considered to be delayed if emergence of a tooth into the oral cavity occurs at a time deviating significantly from norms established for the person’s sex and ethnic background.

Generally, a permanent tooth should erupt no later than 6 months after natural exfoliation of its predecessor, but a delay of up to 12 months may be of little or no importance in an otherwise healthy child.

Therefore, most practitioners consider eruption delayed only if the interval extends to more than 1 year.



Eruption of a tooth is considered to be delayed (i.e., the tooth is impacted) when all of the following conditions exist:

a. The normal time for eruption has been exceeded.
b. The tooth is not present in the dental arch and shows no potential for eruption.
c. The root of the unerupted tooth is completely formed.
d. The homologous tooth has been erupted for at least 6 months.

Read Also: DENTAL TRAUMA : A story of dental injury and orthodontics

Case Report . Diagnosis
A preadolescent girl (9 years, 2 months of age) and her mother presented to a private practice. The patient was “missing a front permanent tooth,” a situation that was esthetically displeasing to both the child and the mother.

A supernumerary tooth had been extracted when the patient was 7 years of age, and she had been advised to await eruption of the permanent successor tooth.

Clinical examination at the time of the current presentation revealed good oral health and mixed dentition.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


jcda.ca
Seema B. Shah, BDS, MFDS RCS (Eng); Gajanan Kulkarni, BDS, LLB, MSc, D Ped Dent, PhD, FRCD(C)



4/03/2020

Do antibiotics during pregnancy affect the health of premature infants?

Pregnant

The use of antibiotics during pregnancy cannot always be avoided. Researchers investigating the impact of antibiotic use on the health of premature infants recently published their findings in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Babies born prematurely are extremely vulnerable even in the protective environment provided by neonatal intensive care units.

Approximately 33% of infants born before 32-weeks gestation develop late-onset sepsis (LOS), which occurs when the bloodstream becomes infected with bacteria.

Fewer infants (7%) develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious condition with a relatively high mortality rate in which sections of the bowel die.

Past studies suggested that the risk of developing these diseases, or even dying, is increased in premature infants who are given antibiotics for an extended period from birth.

Read Also: When do kids need to go to the orthodontist?

Antibiotics during pregnancy can affect an infant’s microbial population
An emerging concern is that infants are developing infections that are resistant to the antibiotics taken by their mothers during pregnancy. This prompted a team in the USA to ask whether fetal exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy could increase the incidence of post-birth bacterial infections, such as LOS and NEC, in premature babies.

The team gathered data from 580 infants born before 32-weeks gestation. These infants had been placed into one of three level-III neonatal intensive care units in Ohio or Alabama in the United States. They were monitored for 120 days or until they were discharged, transferred, or died.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° medicalnewsbulletin.com
° By Natasha Tetlow



4/02/2020

An Interdisciplinary Approach for Rehabilitating a Patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A Case Report

Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) has been defined as a group of hereditary enamel defects. It can be characterized by enamel hypoplasia, hypomaturation, or hypocalcification of the teeth.

AI may be associated with some other dental and skeletal developmental defects. Restoration for patients with this condition should be oriented toward the functional and esthetic rehabilitation.

This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a young patient diagnosed with the hypoplastic type of AI in posterior teeth and hypomatured type of AI in anterior teeth.

Introduction : Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a diverse group of hereditary disorders that primarily affect the quantity, structure, and composition of enamel. The inheritance pattern of AI may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked.

Read Also: Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

According to the Witkop classification system, there are four main forms of AI: type I hypoplastic enamel, type II hypomatured enamel, type III hypocalcified enamel, and type IV hypomatured-hypoplastic enamel with taurodontism.

Clinical presentation of AI varies considerably among the different AI types. In the hypomature type, the affected teeth exhibit mottled, opaque white-brown or yellow discolored enamel, which is softer than normal.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


° hindawi.com
° Niloufar Khodaeian / Mahmoud Sabouhi / Ebrahim Ataei



3/30/2020

How Breastfeeding Could Improve Babies’ Dental Health

Oral Health

The more babies breast-feed, the less likely it is that they will develop any kind of misalignment in their teeth later on, a new study shows.

But pacifiers can negate some of that potential benefit, even if the children are breast-feeding, the Australian researchers said.

“While most benefits of breast-feeding can be attributed to the breast-milk, this study highlights one of the ways that the actual act of breast-feeding imparts its own benefits,” said Dr. Joanna Pierro, a pediatric chief resident at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City.

“While it is well established that exclusively breast-fed babies are at a decreased risk of dental malocclusion [misalignment], this study revealed the differences between those exclusively breast-fed versus those who are predominantly breast-fed,” said Pierro, who was not involved in the study.

“Since many breast-fed babies today are partially fed breast-milk from a bottle, this research reveals how this difference affects the oral cavity,” she added.

The researchers, led by Karen Peres at the University of Adelaide in Australia, tracked just over 1,300 children for five years, including how much they breast-fed at 3 months, 1 year and 2 years old. The study authors also asked how often the children used a pacifier, if at all, when the kids were 3 months, 1 year, 2 and 4. About 40 percent of the children used a pacifier daily for four years.

When the children were 5, the researchers determined which of them had various types of misaligned teeth or jaw conditions, including open bite, crossbite, overbite or a moderate to severe misalignment.

The risk of overbite was one-third lower for those who exclusively breast-fed for three to six months compared to those who didn’t, the findings showed. If they breast-fed at least six months or more, the risk of overbite dropped by 44 percent.

Similarly, children who exclusively breast-fed for three months to six months were 41 percent less likely to have moderate to severe misalignment of the teeth. Breast-feeding six months or longer reduced their risk by 72 percent.

Read Also: CARIES : Does Breastfeeding Increase Risk of Early Childhood Caries?

The findings were published online June 15 in the journal Pediatrics. While the study found an association between breast-feeding and dental health, it did not prove a cause-and-effect link.

But Peres offered some possible explanations for the association.

“The plausible mechanisms which may explain the association between exclusive breast-feeding and lower risk of having [misaligned teeth or jaws] . . . include the adequate development of the orofacial structures in children who are breast-fed, such as proper muscular tone and nasal breathing,” Peres said. “In addition, children who are breast-fed are less likely to use a pacifier, which is considered a risk factor for malocclusion.”

Pierro explained it this way.

“Unlike feeding with a bottle, breast-feeding requires the baby to move her jaw and tongue in ways that help develop the oral cavity,” she said. “So long before baby breaks her first tooth, she is creating the foundation for proper alignment of the teeth.”

The findings may also reflect the effects of a baby getting regular jaw exercise through the act of breast-feeding, suggested Dr. Danelle Fisher, vice chair of pediatrics at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif.

“Breast-feeding requires the use of jaw muscles more so than bottle-feeding, so the mechanics of breast-feeding stimulate muscle tone in the jaw,” Fisher said.

Open bite, overbite and moderate to severe misalignment were generally less common overall among the children who mostly or exclusively breast-fed. Children who mostly breast-fed but also used pacifiers, however, were slightly more likely to have one of these misalignment issues, the study found.

“Pacifiers are used for non-nutritive sucking but when overused, they can put pressure on the developing jaw and lead to more problems in older children with malocclusion [teeth/jaw misalignment],” Fisher said.

That does not mean parents need to toss the pacifiers, however. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents consider using a pacifier for an infant’s first six months because pacifiers are associated with a reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

“Most infants need to suck for comfort or non-nutritive sucking,” Fisher said. “Pacifiers can be helpful in the newborn period and even help reduce incidents of SIDS in infants who sleep with them.”

Instead, parents should simply limit pacifier use, she said. In addition, pacifiers are not needed past the first six to 12 months, Fisher said, so parents can begin weaning after that time.

news.health.com



ORAL MEDICINE : How to manage a pediatric patient with oral ulcers

Oral Medicine

Oral ulcers are a common clinical problem in the pediatric population.

Generally, an ulcer is defined as a well-circumscribed lesion with an epithelial defect covered by a fibrin clot (a pseudomembrane), giving the ulcer a yellow-white appearance.

Presentation : Population

a. Any segment of the pediatric population, from infancy through adolescence

b. Children of parents with recurrent oral ulcers due to genetic predisposition (i.e., recurrent aphthous stomatitis)

c. Young children in group settings (e.g., daycare, shared play areas) developing oral ulcers secondary to an infectious (i.e., bacterial and/or viral) etiology due to the increased risk of oral fluid transfer in those settings

Read Also: ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

Signs

a. Well-circumscribed lesions, often depressed, with an epithelial defect covered by a yellow-white pseudomembrane

b. Single or multiple ulcers; may present in clusters (herpetiform)

c. Intraoral/perioral location: nonkeratinized and/or keratinized oral mucosa, oropharynx, lips, perioral skin

d. Variable size (most commonly measured in millimetres, but may be larger)

e. General location: oral/perioral lesion(s) only or with involvement of other affected surfaces (i.e., skin, genitals, other mucous membranes)

Symptoms

a. Pain severity: Can range from asymptomatic to severe discomfort

b. Burning

c. Irritation

d. Pruritis (itching sensation)

e. Systemic symptoms, such as fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, difficulty swallowing and general irritability

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


°jcda.ca
°Canadian Dental Association
°Eric T. Stoopler, DMD, FDS RCSEd / Ghada Al Zamel, DDS



3/28/2020

When do kids need to go to the orthodontist?

Orthodontic

Previously orthodontic treatment was carried out on children in their teenage years.

Today, however, many children start orthodontic treatment at a much younger age.

There are also large numbers of adults receiving orthodontic treatment.


At what age do you consider braces?

Traditional “train-track” braces are fitted to a child’s adult teeth and are used to move, realign and/or rotate a tooth or teeth into the correct position.

This is why you'll usually see children 10 years and older wearing these types of braces. However, crowded/crooked/skew adult teeth usually manifest because of a space shortage and/or a problem with jaw growth and/or jaw relationships.

Read Also: PERIODONTICS : Gingivitis in Children and Adolescents

This can usually be identified in young children, even before many of their adult teeth start coming through.

The big shift in orthodontics has been to check children at a much younger age, identify these issues earlier and intervene before the arrival of the adult teeth.

In many cases, early intervention can provide future adult teeth with all the space they need and the child may not have to wear conventional braces at all.

READ FULL ARTICLE HERE


health24.com
Dr Simon Reeves