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4/05/2020

ORAL PATHOLOGY : Congenital epulis with auto-resolution: case report

Congenital epulis

Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign lesion that affects the oral cavity of newborns, and presents histological features which are similar to those of granular cell tumor.

The origin of this lesion has not been fully elucidated, and many hypotheses are considered due to the large variety of cell types observed in histological sections.

Epulis development occurs further in the prenatal period, and is more common in newborn females, frequently in the maxilla.



This lesion usually is presentend as a nodule covered by normal oral mucosa, which in some cases, interferes with baby's breathing and feeding.

This report describes the case of a two-month-old male baby who presented a pedunculated intraoral lesion in the mandibular alveolar ridge.

Read Also: Reimplantation of avulsed dry permanent teeth after three days

Histological sections revealed presence of mucosal fragments with atrophic squamous stratified epithelium, and fibrous connective tissue composed of cells with granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm.

A few days after initial exam, the lesion detached from alveolar ridge, and healed spontaneously.

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° Adriane Sousa de SIQUEIRA, Márcia Regina Dias de CARVALHO, Ana Celina Dourado MONTEIRO, Maria das Graças Rodrigues PINHEIRO, Lucas Rodrigues PINHEIRO, João de Jesus Viana PINHEIRO



Early Premolar Extraction: An Uncommon but Very Effective Treatment Option

Orthodontic

The terminology “serial extraction” in Orthodontics was first described in the late 1920’s when Kjellgren decided to plan the extraction of certain deciduous and permanent teeth at early stages of the dentition development.

Since the extractions are under taken at the transitional dentition. This type of treatment is defined as “Early Treatment” in Orthodontics.

The main indication for this treatment approach is for patients with severe crowding caused by tooth size arch discrepancies. In other words, when maxillary and/or mandibular arches cannot accommodate teeth, extraction becomes an interesting option.



Although this treatment option has been used for almost a century in the contemporary orthodontics it’s indication is very specific.

Since it’s an irreversible approach (permanent teeth are early extracted) the clinician should carefully diagnosis the case before selecting this option.

Read Also: ORTHODONTICS : Serial extraction of primary teeth

In addition, as time passed by, orthodontics specialty has dramatically evolved and developed several options to gain space instead of extracting teeth.

On the other hand, the idea to early extract permanent teeth continues to be an interesting treatment option in clinical orthodontics mainly in severely crowded patients.

The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a ten-year-old male patient who presented severe crowding and treatment option was to extract four first premolars at early stages of the dentition development.

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° Adeniyi M J, A O Soladoye. Plasma Lipid Profile and Uric Acid in High Fat Fed Female Rats Treated with Oral Contraceptive. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 1(3)-2017. BJSTR. MS.ID.000256. DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000256



4/04/2020

Inhalation conscious sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen in pediatric dentistry

Sedation

Conscious sedation is a technique in which one or more pharmacological agents are employed to produce a mild depression in the central nervous system, without loss of consciousness so that verbal contact can always be maintained with the patient; this allows for certain dental procedures to be performed.

The technique is associated with a great margin of safety.

In Odontopediatrics, the sedative agents generally employed are nitrous oxide (N2O) and benzodiazepines, amongst other agents with sedative properties.



The use of nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O) is becoming more frequent for general and pediatric procedures in dental medicine and has become common practice in many countries.

Read Also: ORAL SURGERY : Guideline on Pediatric Oral Surgery

It is also frequently used in general pediatric medicine for procedures ranging from minor surgery to more invasive diagnostic procedures.

Nitrous oxide, or protoxide of nitrogen (N2O), is a colorless gas with a sweetish taste. It has an anxiolytic and sedative effect, and also promotes muscular relaxation and analgesia.

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° Ana Catarina Barroso Macedo Barbosa / Joana Moura˜oII, Virgınia Milagre / David Casimiro de Andrade / Cristina Areias



4/03/2020

ORTHODONTIC : Tongue thrusting habit: A review

Orthodontic

Deleterious oral habits are the common problem of pediatricians, which aff ects the quality of life.

Oral habits are repetitive behavior in the oral cavity that result in loss of tooth structure and they include digit sucking, pacifi er sucking, lip sucking and biting, nailbiting, bruxism, self-injurious habits, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting.

Para functional habits are recognized as a major etiological factor for the development of dental malocclusion. Thumb sucking and tongue thrusting is the common ones.

Abnormal tongue function and posture have been long debated as a cause of malocclusion. Lefoulon, in 1839 quoted “prevention is better than cure.”

Understanding the etiology, eff ects and it management at early stages may be helpful to prevent future severe skeletal malocclusion. This review deals with these aspects of tongue thrusting habit.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Serial Extractions in orthodontic – A Review

Definition

Tulley 1969 - states tongue thrust as the forward movement of the tongue tip between the teeth to meet the lower lip during deglutition and in sounds of speech, so that the tongue becomes interdental.

Tongue thrust is an oral habit pattern related to the persistence of an infantile swallow pattern during childhood and adolescence and thereby produces an open bite and protrusion of the anterior tooth segment.

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°ijcdmr.com
°International Journal of Contemporary Dental and Medical Reviews
°Suchita Madhukar Tarvade, Sheetal Ramkrishna



ORAL PATHOLOGY : Dental Anomalies in Children

oral pathology

Human dentitions are subject to considerable variation in size, form, number of teeth and to the structure of the dental tissues.

Disorders of the development of teeth may be inheritedor acquired.

The primary dentition begins to form at approximately six weeks in utero and the permanent dentition continues through late adolescence.

The dentition is thereforesusceptible to environmental influencesfor many years.

Diagnosing abnormal dental development requires thorough evaluation of the patient, including a medical, dental and family history, clinical examination, and radiographic evaluation and, in some cases, special laboratory tests are also required.

Read Also: ORTHODONTIC : Malocclusion in Down syndrome - a review

Genetic consultation is important not merely to put a name to the condition, but also to give appropriate advice on the prognosis and the risk of recurrence in future generations.

It is impossible, in the context of this article, to describe in detail all dental anomalies that occur in children.

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Jinous F Tahmassebi / Peter F Day / Kyriacos Jack Toumba



3/31/2020

ORTHODONTIC : Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1

Emergency Pediatric Dentistry

It is important to have a clear picture of how a child is changing dentally and skeletally throughout his or her growth period.

In fact the American Association of Orthodontists recommends that every child have an orthodontic examination by the age of seven.


The early treatment examination in the mixed dentition enables the practitioner to identify problems at an early stage, and to determine when to commence treatment and/or refer patients to an orthodontist.

Things to look for during a mixed dentition examination include crowding of permanent teeth, excessive overjet or overbite, missing primary teeth needed for space maintenance, supernumerary teeth, skeletal discrepancies, habits, airway problems, and eruption path problems.

Read Also: ORTHODONTICS : Serial extraction of primary teeth

Introduction

This continuing dental education article is being written to describe the need for early examination and diagnosis of malocclusions in growing children.

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°dentalacademyofce.com
°Diagnosing Early Interceptive Orthodontic Problems – Part 1
°Written by: Michael Florman, DDS / Rob Veis, DDS / Mark M. Alarabi, DDS, CECSMO / Mahtab Partovi, DDS

3/30/2020

ORAL MEDICINE : Clinical Management of Regional Odontodysplasia. Clinical Case

Oral Medicine

Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is a relatively rare localized developmental anomaly of the dental tissues with specific clinical, radiographic, and histologic characteristics.

Crawford ascribed the first report of ROD to Hitchin in 1934, while others suggested that McCall and Wald were the first to describe this condition in 1947.

It was not until 1963, however, that Zegarelli et al coined the term “odontodysplasia” and Pindborg added the prefix “regional” in 1970.

In an extensive review of ROD in 1989, Crawford and Aldred stated females are more often affected than males (1.4:1) and that there was no association with race.

These authors listed several etiological factors such as local circulatory disorders, viral infections, pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, facial asymmetry, local trauma, metabolic disturbances, somatic and neural mutations, and syndromal involvement.

They also suggested that a combination of factors might be involved. In spite of this, ROD’s etiology remains undetermined.

Read Also: ORAL MEDICINE : How to treat oral thrush in newborns

The criteria for ROD diagnosis are based on clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. The maxilla is typically affected twice as often as the mandible.

Clinically, the condition is usually unilateral and rarely crosses the midline; exceptions are, however, occasionally found. In most cases in which the damage crosses the midline, only the central incisor on the opposite side is affected.

The teeth are likely to be small, brown, grooved, and hypoplastic. Eruption failure or delay is frequently seen as well as abscesses or fistulae in the absence of caries.

Radiographically, there is a lack of contrast between the enamel and dentin, both of which are less radiopaque than unaffected counterparts.

Moreover, enamel and dentin layers are thin, giving the teeth a “ghost like” appearance. The pulp chambers are large, and usually present areas of relatively radiodense tissue (pulp stones or denticles). The follicles of unerupted teeth are enlarged.

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° odontologiaparabebes.com
° Abel Cahuana, PhD, MD, DDS Yndira González, DDS Camila Palma, DDS